By Frances Makarova (Rachav)
Submitted 5/25/06

It appears to me that the subject of the Gerim – the Bible’s “stranger,” “sojourner,” or generally, gentile or non-Jew - and the Seven laws needs to be re-evaluated. According to Halacha (Jewish religious law) and some Talmudic passages, there seems to be some disagreement regarding the role of the Ger [singular of gerim]. Some say that the gentile who keeps the Sabbath is worthy of death, and others say that the gentile who keeps the Torah is like a Priest. Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Sanhedrin 59a.

The great Torah commentator Rashi teaches that a gentile who truly renounces idolatry, coming to worship God as HaShem, the One, must [morally] keep the Sabbath [on some level]. See Rashi on Exodus 20:10, and Rashi on Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Yevamot 48b.

I believe that the Torah teaches that the Moedim (Holy Days) were set at the time of Creation, and revealed in Genesis chapter 1. On the fourth day of Creation, the principle of the mikveh or gathering of waters was also revealed at Creation.

10 And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of” (mikveh) the waters called He Seas: and God saw that [it was] good.” Gen. 1:10.

This was on the third day of Creation. The weekly Sabbath was revealed and given on the Seventh day of Creation. Not only was the Sabbath revealed at Creation but it was also declared to be "blessed" and "set apart" (sanctified) at that time.

2 And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. 3 And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made. Gen. 2:2-3.

When the children of Israel together with the Gerim with them were in the the wilderness, they were given the weekly Sabbath as a test commandment to see if they would keep HaShem’s Torah or not. The statutes, ordinances, and some commandments of the Torah itself were revealed to them when they were at Marah.

23 And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter. Therefore the name of it was called Marah. 24 And the people murmured against Moses, saying: 'What shall we drink?' 25 And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD showed him a tree, and he cast it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There He made for them a statute and an ordinance, and there He proved them; 26 and He said: 'If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in His eyes, and wilt give ear to His commandments, and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases upon thee, which I have put upon the Egyptians; for I am the LORD that healeth thee.' 27 And they came to Elim, where were twelve springs of water, and three score and ten palm-trees; and they encamped there by the waters.

25 And Moses said: 'Eat that today; for today is a sabbath unto the LORD; today ye shall not find it in the field. 26 Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day is the sabbath, in it there shall be none.' 27 And it came to pass on the seventh day, that there went out some of the people to gather, and they found none.

It was here only one month out from Egypt that the B'nai Israel were balking at keeping the Laws (Torah) and mitzvot (commandments) of HaShem.
Of course at this time they were also accompanied by the Great Multitude generally referred to as Erev Rav – i.e., gentiles who accompanied Israel out of Egypt. Ex. 12:38. The Great Multitude would also have been keeping the weekly Sabbath with the Jews and eating the Manna with them.

28 And the LORD said unto Moses: 'How long refuse ye to keep My commandments and My laws? 29 See that the LORD hath given you the sabbath; therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.' 30 So the people rested on the seventh day.

All this took place almost two months before the children of Israel and the gentiles (Erev rav - mixed multitude) who were with them arrived at Mt. Horeb (Mt. Sinai).

The first occurrence of the word sojourner (Ger Toshav) is Abraham, who called himself this when he was living among the gentiles. Gen. 23:4.

Much has been written about the role of the Ger, as defined by Halacha today. However, on studying the Tenach (the Hebrew Bible as a whole), I see several different categories of Strangers.

There is Zar, who is a stranger - frequently an idolater - who is not trying to serve HaShem, and who is often seen in negative light, although it also occasionally refers even to a Jew who is prohibited certain things. There is also the Nokri or someone who is completely foreign to the ways and laws of Israel, who is always an idolator.

There is “the Stranger within thy gates [or cities].” Ex. 20:10. This person is apparently not a resident of the land of Israel. He or she could be a tourist, or someone who is just passing through. It is permitted to give an animal which died of itself – meat that Israel may not eat, non-kosher meat - to the Stranger within thy gates. In this regard the Stranger within thy gates is in the same category as a nokri, except that Israel may sell the meat to the nokri and may not sell it but only give it away to "the Stranger within thy gates."

Deuteronomy 14.
21 Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner [nokri]; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk.

Sometimes it says in the scriptures that a Ger may eat that which died of itself, and at others the Stranger who sojourns with the children of Israel may not eat of it. I believe that this is because the Ger Toshav has a different status halachically to someone who is merely a 'stranger'. I have been informed that at the present time it is not possible for a Noahide to become a Ger Toshav, because there is no universal Beis Din, authorized Court of Jewish Law or Sanhedrin, which could accept us, until the Temple is rebuilt.

However, there is nothing preventing us from taking a ‘vow’ with suitable conditions, such as taking upon ourselves Israel’s 13 Principles of Faith (The Rainbow Covenant enumerates them and describes them well at the end, in the Appendix) as well as listing the 7 Noahide laws. It would be a sort of Ketubah (a marriage contract, always in writing) if you will, for the purposes of showing one's own readiness to be recognized as a Ger Toshav when the time is right.

The Stranger who sojourns or dwells (Ger Toshav) with the children of Israel falls under stricter guidelines. This person is NOT permitted to eat any animal which died of itself. He must ensure that the flesh that he consumes has been correctly slaughtered, and the blood has been poured on the earth.

Leviticus 17:12 Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any 'stranger that sojourneth among you' eat blood.

Under the laws of the Righteous gentile it is made clear that this means that the animal must be correctly slaughtered. Since the slaughter must be done by someone who knows exactly how it is done, the meat must be slaughtered by either a Jew who is a Shochet (a trained and certified slaughterer), or, perhaps, by a Muslim halal slaughterer; most butchered meat that is slaughtered in gentile countries would be prohibited because the animal was injured - stunned - before slaughter, or killed improperly, the meat being full of blood and the animal itself often even alive and kicking (!) when it is being butchered.

Hence the meat eaten by a Ger Toshav would have to be Kosher or Halal.

How many Jewish Shochets, or Muslim slaughterers, would be willing to slaughter an unclean animal? Not very many!

Since the laws of the clean and the unclean were known to Noah, or Noach, I submit that he kept these laws, and did not defile himself by eating unclean flesh.

As proof of the antiquity of this teaching for the gentiles, let me refer to the Christian Scriptures, also known as the New Testament or NT). Under the subject of not eating food offered to idols, the gentiles who were Ger Toshav were instructed that they were to buy their meat at a "shambles": in both Greek and Hebrew, makellon - the word has the same meaning in both languages.

1 Corinthians 10:25 Whatsoever is sold in the **shambles,** [that] eat.

According to this, the gentiles there were considered to be Gerim Toshavim [plural of ger toshav], and were not permitted to eat 'unclean – akathartes (the Greek word akaqarth (sp?) means physically moral, foul or impure flesh.) In a letter to the Corinthians, they are instructed to buy their meat at a Makellon/Makellom. The great translator H. Jastrow defines this as a butcher shop which is owned by a gentile in a gentile country, but which employed a Jewish Shochet to slaughter the meat. Since the gentiles who were at that stage in history still attached to the synagogues in some way were commanded to eat meat bought from a Makellon, and since this permission is also given for the Jews in diaspora, it would seem that both are commanded to eat only 'clean meat' and without blood.

Christian New Testament
Acts 15:19: [Paul writes:] Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the gentiles are turned to God: 20 But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and [from] fornication, and [from] things strangled, and [from] blood. 21 For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.

Acts 21:25: As touching the gentiles which believe, we have written [and] concluded that they observe no such thing, save only that they keep themselves from [things] offered to idols, and from blood, and from strangled, and from fornication.

I also contend that the ruling about gentiles who have turned to God comes from the laws as given in Leviticus. Clearly here the gentiles who accompanied the children of Israel were also commanded to be immersed in a Mikveh in order to be cleansed.

Leviticus 17:10 And whatsoever man [there be] of the house of Israel, or of **the strangers that sojourn among you**, that eateth any manner of blood; I will even set my face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people.

Leviticus 17:15 And every soul that eateth that which died [of itself], or that which was torn [with beasts, whether it be] one of your own country, or a stranger, he shall both wash his clothes, and bathe [himself] in water, and be unclean until the even: then shall he be clean.

The laws regarding 'fornication' and 'sexual immorality' are defined in Leviticus 18, and are part of the Noahide Law. In Numbers 19 even the ordinance of the Torah regarding the red heifer is applied to the Stranger (Ger Toshav) also.

Numbers 19:2
This [is] the ordinance of the law which the LORD hath commanded, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring thee a red heifer without spot, wherein [is] no blemish, [and] upon which never came yoke:.........

Numbers 19:10
And he that gathereth the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: and it shall be unto the children of Israel, and unto **the stranger that sojourneth** among them, for a statute for ever.

Noah would have been offering the Tahor clean animals as sacrifices prior to the flood, as would Adam and his sons Abel and Seth. To do this they would have needed to know how to tell the difference between the clean and the unclean.

Genesis 7:1-5.
1 And the LORD said unto Noah: 'Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before Me in this generation. 2 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee seven and seven, each with his mate; and of the beasts that are not clean two [and two], each with his mate; 3 of the fowl also of the air, seven and seven, male and female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. 4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I blot out from off the face of the earth.' 5 And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him.

The Torah clearly defines one of the differences between the Stranger in the gates/cities, and the stranger who dwells among/sojourns with the children of Israel.

The stranger who dwells among / sojourns with the children of Israel cannot be an idolator. Such an idolator is liable to the death penalty. One of the signs which determines which G-d a Jew worships is the weekly Sabbath, because it points to the Creator. I submit that unless the strangers who dwelt with the children of Israel were demonstrating their submission to HaShem by keeping the weekly Sabbath and acknowledging the Creator, that any day that they designated to worship Him would be paganism. As indeed the Sunday worship of the gentile Christians is.

Leviticus 20:1-4.
1 And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying: 2 Moreover, thou shalt say to the children of Israel: Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall stone him with stones. 3 I also will set My face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people, because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile My sanctuary, and to profane My holy name. 4 And if the people of the land do at all hide their eyes from that man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and put him not to death; Lev.

The stranger / Ger who sojourns with Israel is permitted to 'keep the the days of unleavened bread' but unless he is circumcised he is not permitted to eat the Pesach Lamb. As there is no Beis HaMikdash, there is no passover lamb today either.

Abraham, Sarah and Lot clearly kept the "days of unleavened bread". It was during this 'moed' that Abraham and Sarah were promised that they would have a son. Lot was a Ger.

Genesis 18.
21 But My covenant will I establish with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time (moed) in the next year.'

As the word 'moed' implies an appointed time, and also an assembly it is clear that this is the day which HaShem has designated for those who love Him should assemble together to worship Him.

Genesis 18:6.
6 And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said: 'Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes.'

Since these cakes were made quickly they were clearly unleavened. The events in chapters 18 and 19 of Genesis are contemporary with each other. It is a 'moed' as HaShem has told Abraham.

Gen. 18:13-14
13 And the LORD said unto Abraham: 'Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I of a surety bear a child, who am old? 14 Is any thing too hard for the LORD. At the set time (moed) I will return unto thee, when the season cometh round, and Sarah shall have a son.'.

Not only was Abraham keeping the 'moed' of the days of unleavened bread, but so also was his nephew Lot who was a Ger because he made a feast and baked unleavened bread to feed his guests.

Genesis 19.
1 And the two angels came to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom; and Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them; and he fell down on his face to the earth; 2 and he said: 'Behold now, my lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your way.' And they said: 'Nay; but we will abide in the broad place all night.' 3 And he urged them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat. Gen. 19:1-3.

14 And if a stranger shall sojourn among you, and will keep the passover unto the LORD: according to the statute of the passover, and according to the ordinance thereof, so shall he do; ye shall have one statute, both for the stranger, and for him that is born in the land.' Num. 9:14.

The "Ger Toshav" is commanded to be circumcised if he wishes to eat the Passover sacrifice. Demonstrating that a Ger Toshav is not usually circumcised.

Exodus 12.
43 And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: 'This is the ordinance of the passover: there shall no alien eat thereof; 44 but every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. 45 A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof. Ex.12:43-45.

46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof. 47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. 48 And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. 49 One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.' Ex. 12:46-49.

The Stranger who sojourns (Ger Toshav) may make an olah offering. There is One Torah and one ordinance for the Ger who dwells with you.

14 And if a stranger sojourn with you, or whosoever may be among you, throughout your generations, and will offer an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD; as ye do, so he shall do.

15 As for the congregation, there shall be one statute both for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with you, a statute for ever throughout your generations; as ye are, so shall the stranger be before the LORD. 16 One law and one ordinance shall be both for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with you.

The sins of the stranger who sojourns (Ger Toshav) among Israel are forgiven if they are committed in ignorance.

Num. 15:24-25.
24 then it shall be, if it be done in error by the congregation, it being hid from their eyes, that all the congregation shall offer one young bullock for a burnt-offering, for a sweet savour unto the LORD--with the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof, according to the ordinance--and one he-goat for a sin-offering.
25 And the priest shall make atonement for all the congregation of the children of Israel, and they shall be forgiven; for it was an error, and they have brought their offering, an offering made by fire unto the LORD, and their sin-offering before the LORD, for their error. 26 And all the congregation of the children of Israel shall be forgiven, and the stranger that sojourneth among them; for in respect of all the people it was done in error.

The stranger (Ger) and the sojourner (Ger Toshav) are clearly two different categories here, but both may seek refuge in one of the cities of refuge if they accidentally kill someone.
These two separate categories are clearly delineated in Numbers. The Stranger within thy gates is not affected by the same laws as the "Ger who sojourns". But certain laws are applicable to both.

Numbers 35:15.
15 For the children of Israel, and for the stranger and for the settler among them, shall these six cities be for refuge, that every one that killeth any person through error may flee thither.

Even the Ger who is 'within thy gates' is commanded to keep the Sabbath. 'The Ger who is within thy gates' has a different status to a Ger Toshav, a Ger who dwells with you, because he is permitted to eat something that died of itself, and also unclean flesh, but with regard to the cities of refuge he is permitted to seek sanctuary, there if he accidentally kills someone.

Regarding the Seventh day Sabbath. Neither the stranger within thy gates, nor the Ger Toshav is permitted to break the Sabbath.

I am not suggesting that the Ger should observe all of the rabbinical rules with regard to the weekly Sabbath, but that the Torah indicates that they should be keeping it as a day of rest from labour, and keeping it Holy and they should not be buying or selling on that day. Here is what Nehemiah said.

Nehemiah 9.9-15.
9 And Thou sawest the affliction of our fathers in Egypt, and heardest their cry by the Red Sea; 10 and didst show signs and wonders upon Pharaoh, and on all his servants, and on all the people of his land; for Thou knewest that they dealt proudly against them; and didst get Thee a name, as it is this day. 11 And Thou didst divide the sea before them, so that they went through the midst of the sea on the dry land; and their pursuers Thou didst cast into the depths, as a stone into the mighty waters. 12 Moreover in a pillar of cloud Thou didst lead them by day; and in a pillar of fire by night, to give them light in the way wherein they should go. 13 Thou camest down also upon mount Sinai, and spokest with them from heaven, and gavest them right ordinances and laws of truth, good statutes and commandments; 14 and madest known unto them Thy holy sabbath, and didst command them commandments, and statutes, and a law, by the hand of Moses Thy servant;
15 and gavest them bread from heaven for their hunger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock for their thirst, and didst command them that they should go in to possess the land which Thou hadst lifted up Thy hand to give them.

Nehemiah 13.
14 In those days saw I in Judah some treading winepresses on the sabbath, and bringing in heaps of corn, and lading asses therewith; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath day; and I forewarned them in the day wherein they sold victuals. Neh. 13:15

Nehemiah 22.
22 And I commanded the Levites that they should purify themselves, and that they should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the sabbath day. Remember unto me, O my God, this also, and spare me according to the greatness of Thy mercy.

If the Nations honor the weekly Sabbath they would not tempt the children of Israel to break it. Similarly It also seems to me that a Jew may not keep a resident "Sabbath Goy," because Torah expressly forbids it. Even the animals are given a Sabbath rest from their labours.

Deuteronomy 5.
12 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; 13 but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy man-servant and thy maid-servant may rest as well as thou. 14 And thou shalt remember that thou was a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God brought thee out thence by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day.

The Ger Toshav has an inheritance in the land of Israel.

Ezekiel 47.
21 So shall ye divide this land unto you according to the tribes of Israel. 22 And it shall come to pass, that ye shall divide it by lot for an inheritance unto you and to the strangers that sojourn among you, who shall beget children among you; and they shall be unto you as the home-born among the children of Israel; they shall have inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel.
23 And it shall come to pass, that in what tribe the stranger sojourneth, there shall ye give him his inheritance, saith the Lord GOD.

The sons of the Ger who join themselves to the LORD to be His servants are commanded to keep the Sabbath day holy. Clearly the thing which sets the Ger Toshav apart from the "goy" is that the Ger Toshav loves and obeys HaShem.

Now here is a prophecy in Isaiah regarding the alien who has joined himself to HaShem.

Isaiah 56.
3 Neither let the alien (hanekar), that hath joined himself to the LORD, speak, saying: 'The LORD will surely separate me from His people'; neither let the eunuch say: 'Behold, I am a dry tree.'

6 Also the aliens (nekar), that join themselves to the LORD, to minister unto Him, and to love the name of the LORD, to be His servants, every one that keepeth the sabbath from profaning it, and holdeth fast by My covenant: 7 Even them will I bring to My holy mountain, and make them joyful in My house of prayer; their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be acceptable upon Mine altar; for My house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples. 8 Saith the Lord GOD who gathereth the dispersed of Israel: Yet I will gather others to him, beside those of him that are gathered. 9 All ye beasts of the field, come to devour, yea, all ye beasts in the forest.

These gerim who keep the Sabbath day Holy are referred to as being 'gathered with Israel.' HaShem makes it clear that the Sabbath is His Holy day, it does not belong to man but to G-d Himself.

Isaiah 56:
8 Saith the Lord GOD who gathereth the dispersed of Israel: Yet I will gather others to him, beside those of him that are gathered. 9 All ye beasts of the field, come to devour, yea, all ye beasts in the forest.

Isaiah 58
13 If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, from pursuing thy business on My holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, and the holy of the LORD honourable; and shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof; 14 Then shalt thou delight thyself in the LORD, and I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father; for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.

Since the weekly Sabbath was given to Adam at Creation it was intended for all mankind. But the sons of Adam disobeyed HaShem, and walked astray both before and after the Flood of Noah.

The Ger Toshav is also commanded to observe Yom Kippur.

Levitcus 16:29-31.
29 And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourneth among you. 30 For on this day shall atonement be made for you, to cleanse you; from all your sins shall ye be clean before the LORD. 31 It is a sabbath of solemn rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls; it is a statute for ever.

In the Messianic era the Gerim will have to keep the Sabbath day, the festival of Succot, and the New Moons.

Since Shavuot is linked so closely with the story of the gentile Ruth who first became a Ger Toshuv and then a convert, and subsequently an ancestor of King David and thus the Messiah.
I believe that this day which also comemorates the giving of the Torah on Mt. Sinai is also for the Ger Toshav.

Gentiles who refuse to keep the Feast of Succot will be punished.

Zechariah 14:
16 And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations that came against Jerusalem shall go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles. 17 And it shall be, that whoso of the families of the earth goeth not up unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, upon them there shall be no rain. 18 And if the family of Egypt go not up, and come not, they shall have no overflow; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the nations that go not up to keep the feast of tabernacles. 19 This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all the nations that go not up to keep the feast of tabernacles. 20 In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses: HOLY UNTO THE LORD; and the pots in the LORD'S house shall be like the basins before the altar. 21 Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holy unto the LORD of hosts; and all they that sacrifice shall come and take of them, and seethe therein; and in that day there shall be no more a trafficker in the house of the LORD of hosts.

Hence I contend that the things which are prohibited to the Ger Toshav in the positive mitzvot of the Tenach are the eating of the Paschal Lamb, and entering the Beis HaMikdash past the Soreg or trying to assume the roles of Leviim, or High Priest, or a woman doing those things which are for men or vice versa.

Since during the Messianic era even the Gerim will have some chosen to be or assist priests and Levites on their behalf and since no uncircumcised person will be permitted on the Holy Mountain of Jerusalem, these Gerim will have to be circumcised also.

Ezekiel 44.
5 And the LORD said unto me: 'Son of man, mark well, and behold with thine eyes, and hear with thine ears all that I say unto thee concerning all the ordinances of the house of the LORD, and all the laws thereof; and mark well the entering in of the house, with every going forth of the sanctuary. 6 And thou shalt say to the rebellious, even to the house of Israel: Thus saith the Lord GOD: O ye house of Israel, let it suffice you of all your abominations, 7 in that ye have brought in aliens, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in My sanctuary, to profane it, even My house, when ye offer My bread, the fat and the blood, and they have broken My covenant, to add unto all your abominations. 8 And ye have not kept the charge of My holy things; but ye have set keepers of My charge in My sanctuary to please yourselves. {S} 9 Thus saith the Lord GOD: No alien, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into My sanctuary, even any alien that is among the children of Israel.

The Righteous Gentiles will bring the children of Israel home.
It also appears that some Gentiles will be chosen as to act in a role of similar to that of the
priests and Levites in their own nations.

Isaiah 66.
18 For I [know] their works and their thoughts; [the time] cometh, that I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come, and shall see My glory. 19 And I will work a sign among them, and I will send such as escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard My fame, neither have seen My glory; and they shall declare My glory among the nations.
20 And they shall bring all your brethren out of all the nations for an offering unto the LORD, upon horses, and in chariots, and in fitters, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to My holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the LORD, as the children of Israel bring their offering in a clean vessel into the house of the LORD. 21 And of them also will I take for the priests and for the Levites, saith the LORD.

The commentary in the Stone Edition of the Tenach says that this is that this is speaking of the children of Israel who the righteous gentiles will bring back to the land of Israel.

Stone Edition Tenach Commentary Isaiah
66.21 Many of the Jews who will arrive from the remote corners of the world will not know that they are Kohanim or Levites, but I will assign them to the Temple service. (Rashi)

In the Messianic era all flesh will keep the New Moon and the weekly Sabbath.

Isaiah 66.
22 For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before Me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed and your name remain. 23 And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before Me, saith the LORD. 24 And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh.

The righteous gentiles will not be permitted to come near to the Sanctuary of HaShem.

Ezekiel 44.
9 Thus saith the Lord GOD: No alien, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into My sanctuary, even any alien that is among the children of Israel.

15 But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, ......
23 And they shall teach My people the difference between the holy and the common, and cause them to discern between the unclean and the clean. 24 And in a controversy they shall stand to judge; according to Mine ordinances shall they judge it; and they shall keep My laws and My statutes in all My appointed seasons, and they shall hallow My sabbaths.

We Noahides do not believe that we will replace the roles assigned by HaShem to the people Israel to serve Him, in His Holy House. However, we do believe that some of us will have the role of judges and to create civil laws in our own nations, advised, perhaps, by the Priests and Levites in messianic days, as revealed by Hashem.

Isaiah 2.
1 The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem. 2 And it shall come to pass in the end of days, that the mountain of the LORD'S house shall be established as the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it. 3 And many peoples shall go and say: 'Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths.' For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. 4 And He shall judge between the nations, and shall decide for many peoples; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.

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